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Each major command will: 1 Insure that effective preventive and corrective maintenance measures are established and accomplished at all installations under its jurisdiction. The Base Civil Engineer will: 1 Plan, initiate, and supervise the execution of maintenance. Compliance with these standards is mandatory in order that the maintenance of waterfront facilities at military installations will be uniform, will adequately support the operational missions of the installations, and will permit interservice assistance and support, where possible, in the interest of efficiency and economy.

When waterfront structures are in an inactive status, the maintenance policies will be consistent with the anticipated future mission of the installation and in accordance with the inactivation plan. The services of qualified technical personnel will be used to assist in the establishment of waterfront maintenance programs. A glossary of waterfront terms is provided in the back of this manual. Requirements for the design and construction of waterfront facilities are found in References IReference 61 is especially important relative to inspection of waterfront structures.

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Reference to other published materials, which provide related or more extensive information on specific areas of waterfront maintenance, is made where appropriate throughout this manual and its Appendixes. The upkeep of waterfront structures and other harbor facilities falls into the following areas of consideration: 1 Inspection, 2 Maintenance, 3 Repair and Reconstruction, and 4 Control of Marine Organisms.

Inspection is the act of checking, visually and mechanically, the condition of facilities. This inspection should be performed on a routine basis, as indicated in this manual. The evaluation of the inspections will determine the degree of hazard involved with each structure.

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This degree of hazard will be used to determine the priority sequence of repair and the extent of repair required. Maintenance is the recurrent day-to-day, periodic, or scheduled work that is required to preserve or restore a facility to such a condition that it can be effectively utilized for its designed purpose. It includes work undertaken to prevent damage to or deterioration of a facility that otherwise would be more costly to restore. Drainage is the single most important maintenance procedure. Water on, in, below, above, or anywhere near a structure creates special maintenance problems.

Repair is the restoration of a facility to such a condition that it can be effectively utilized for its designed purpose. The repair is accomplished by overhaul, reprocessing, or replacement of constituent parts or materials that have deteriorated by action of the elements or usage and have not been corrected through maintenance. Repair can be incorporated in a concurrent modernization program.

This control begins with the use of materials resistant to marine organisms when waterfront structures and other harbor facilities are designed and constructed. The control is a continuing requirement involving the taking of all known corrective measures and providing effective countermeasures to inhibit the growth of destructive organisms in waterfront facilities. Waterfront facilities are structures and facilities that provide service for: 1 passengers 2 3 4 5 Transferring ordnance, other cargo, and Refueling ships Storing goods Supplying utilities to home-based vessels Berthing, constructing, overhauling, and repairing ships 6 Conducting military marine operations 7 Protecting the shoreline 1.

A pier Fiqure 1 is a deck structure supported above the water on piles open type , a solid- fill structure retained by bulkheads closed type with apron , or a combination of the two. It extends outward from the shore into a harbor or other navigable waters to permit berthing along one or both sides of its length. A wharf or quay l Fiqure ] is a deck structure supported above the water on piles open type , Figure Open-type pier. It runs parallel to the shore and is connected to it at more than one point usually continuously to provide berthing normally along one side. Example of a wharf.

A dolphin Fiqure l is a structure usually consisting of one or a group of piles. It is placed near piers and wharves or in turning basins and ship channels 1 to guide vessels into their moorings, 2 to fend vessels away from structures, shoals, or the shore, 3 to support navigation aids, or 4 to moor a vessel. Figure Example of a dolphin. A fleet mooring is an offshore ship anchoring system that consists of a ground tackle arrangement of chain or cable, sinkers, and anchors or other holding devices placed on the bottom of an anchorage.

It is connected by means of a riser chain or chains to a buoy riding on the surface of the water whereby a ship can be made fast to the buoy. Main tenance of fleet moorings is described in Reference M it is mentioned in this manual only to identify fleet moorings as an important type of waterfront structure requiring regular maintenance. A drydocking system is a facility for exposing the normally underwater portion of a ship for construction, inspection, modification, repair, or hull maintenance, below.

Several different types are listed 1. A graving dock Figure 1 is a fixed basin usually of stone masonry, concrete, or piling cells adjacent to the water's edge. It can be closed off from the waterway by a movable watertight barrier entrance caisson or flap gate. It can, therefore, be pumped dry, allowing a ship to settle down on blocking set on the dock floor. Graving dock with ship installed. A floating drydock is a ship or U-shaped structure that can be submerged by flooding to permit a vessel to enter and then later be pumped dry to raise the vessel out of the water.

Maintenance and operation of floating drydocks will not be discussed in this manual. A marine railway Figure consists of an inclined groundway extending into the water, a mobile ship cradle on wheels or rollers, groundway ship cradle tracks, hoisting machinery, and chains or cables for hauling the ship cradle endwise or sidewise. Example of a marine railway.

A vertical lift drydock KFigure 1- [6 is a platform which is lowered into the water to receive a ship, and then elevated out of the water by electrically, pneumatically, or hydraulically powered hoisting equipment. A quay wall Figure ] is a barrier of steel, stone, concrete, or wood that supports an embankment or fill built as a part of a waterfront structure.

New guidance for old waterfront walls

Example of a vertical lift drydock. A quay wall. Such a structure is sometimes used as a breakwater. Generally, the level top is appreciable in area and may contain paved roads, railroads, and crane trackage. If the sides and offshore end of a mole are protected by either a bulkhead or a gravity-type wall, the structure can be used to berth vessels, provided the depth of water is adequate. They are generally lower in height than breakwaters and are designed to offer less resistance to waves than breakwaters and seawalls.

Jetties should be dense enough to prevent sand from entering the entrance channel. Example of a jetty.

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These are substantial structures, located at the outer limits of a harbor or anchorage, to protect the inner waters against the effects of heavy seas and winds and to ensure safe mooring, operating, loading, or unloading of shipping within the harbor tFiqure 1-ful. These durable barriers usually consist of rubble-mound structures and are often covered with heavy, large rocks or reinforced concrete armor units.

There are three general types of breakwaters, depending on type of exposed face: 1 vertical, 2 partly vertical and partly inclined, or 3 inclined. Breakwaters may be either detached from the shore or shore-connected. Example of a mole.

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Example of the placement of a breakwater. These structures control the rate of shifting sand by influencing offshore currents and wave action in a manner such that erosion o f the shoreline is prevented or minimized IfFigure 1 -TT1. Generally, the longtime effect of groins is an increase in the width of the beach. These narrow structures may be perpendicular to the shoreline and are constructed of large rocks at least 1 ton each , precast concrete units, reinforced or prestressed concrete piles, steel sheet piles, or timber cribbing filled with rock.

The most common type of groin is the high, dense one that is designed to catch the drifting sand until the sand is forced around the offshore end.

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These are massive structures, built along and parallel to the shoreline, that are designed to protect coastal areas against erosion ca used by wave action and flooding during heavy seas l Figure 1-T2. The seawalls are constructed of rubble-mound, granite masonry, or reinforced concrete. They are usually supplemented with steel or concrete sheet pile driven into the beach and strengthened by wales and brace- type piles. Example of a seawall. A groin. The maintenance program for waterfront structures and other harbor facilities shall be developed to include the prevention and prompt detection of deficiencies or damage and the quick performance of maintenance or repairs in an economical and workable manner.

Replacement or repair of damaged parts should be made as soon as possible because when one item is not working, the remaining parts are more easily damaged. These requirements are essential to the maintenance standards established by higher authority. In the maintenance of waterfront facilities thorough consideration shall be given to the overall economy of the facility. Of particular importance is a complete study of the replacement cost of the facility in relation to the expected life span and the cost of repairs.

Other factors to be considered include the following: prompt detection of deficiencies or damage and the expeditious performance of maintenance or repairs in an economical and workable manner. Replacement or repair of damaged components should be made as soon as possible because of: 1 Possible obsolescence of the facility 2 The present adequacy of the facility 3 The present and future availability of maintenance funds 4 The operational economics of downtime involved in major repair or replacement of facilities.

The deterioration of waterfront facilities is caused PLANNING by exposure to destructive forces, such as: 1 Attack by fungi, termites, and marine organisms 2 Corrosion 3 Mechanical damage, including the impact and pressure of ships and cargo and the abrasive action of sand, ice, and debris 4 Erosion due to wind and wave action, tides, water currents, rain, snow, sleet and ice, and freezing and thawing.